Obuka i razvoj

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Obuka i razvoj

Post  Admin on Tue Nov 24, 2009 5:34 pm

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Obuka i razvoj
Obuka i razvoj

Oblast funkcionalnosti HRM-a posebno važna za efikasno iskorišćenje ljudskih resursa je obuka i razvoj. Značaj obuke za uspeh organizacije je dobro poznat. Zaposleni su presudan, ali skup resurs. Da bi se održala ekonomska efikasnost važno je prilagoditi doprinos zaposlenih ciljevima organizacije.
Vodeći autori davno su uočili važnost obuke kao centralne uloge menadžmenta. Prema Drucker-u, na primer, ono što se od svakog menadžera očekuje je da drugima prenese viziju i sposobnost da delaju. Osnovni zadatak menadžera je da razvija ljude i da usmerava, ohrabruje i obučava podređene.
Vladajući trend smanjenja, fleksibilne strukture organizacija i priroda menadžmenta u kom se moć prenosi na radnu snagu dodatno stavljaju naglasak na trening i podršku. Obuka je neophodno da bi obezbedila adekvatan izvor osoblja koje je tehnički i socijalno kompetentno, i sposobno za napredovanje u karijeri do specijalističkih odeljenja ili menadžerskih pozicija. Zbog toga postoji stalna potreba za razvitkom osoblja, a obuka ispunjava bitan deo ovog procesa. Obuku zato treba shvatiti kao integralni deo procesa menadžmenta ukupnog kvaliteta.


Koristi obuke

Cilj obuke je uvećanje znanja i veština, i promena stavova. Obuka je jedan od najvažnijih potencijalnih motivišućih faktora. Ovo može da iznedri mnoge koristi, kako za pojedince, atko i za organizaciju. Obuka može da:

• uveća samopouzdanje, motivisanost i posvećenost osoblja;
• obezbedi uvažavanje, povećanu odgovornost, i mogućnost povišene plate ili napredovanja;
• pruži osećanje ličnog zadovoljstva i postignuća, i uveća prilike za razvoj karijere; i
• poboljša dostupnost i kvalitet osoblja.

Obuka je stoga ključni element boljeg poslovanja organizacije. Obuka uvećava nivo lične kompetentnosti i kompetentnosti organizacije. Ona pomaže da se premosti rascep između željenog i stvarnog – između zamišljenih ciljeva ili standarda i stvarnih nivoa poslovanja.
Mada mnogi poslodavci i dalje imaju rezervi spram cene i dobiti od obuke, razvoj stručnih veština identifikovan je kao ključni faktor u postizanju konkurentnosti i konačnom uvećanju profita. Iako potencijalne koristi obuke mogu izgledati očigledne, obuka sama po sebi ne vodi obavezno ka boljem poslovanju. Mora postojati prikladna kultura obuke. Obuka mora biti prilagođena potrebama i zahtevima organizacije i sve veći naglasak je na stručnom obrazovanju. Na primer, Tate smatra da je obuka važna poluga za pokretanje napretka i promena, ali se pita da li lična kompetentnost automatski znači kompetentnost organizacije, i naglašava važnost čvrstog poslovnog opredeljenja i razliku između obuke i obrazovanja.

Obuka može lako postati kurs konformiteta i stagniranja – kroz ustaljenu uniformnost i pridržavanjem tuđeg modela trenutno najbolje prakse. Istinsko obrazovanje – sa kojim se obuka često nespretno meša – je sušta suprotnost ovome. Obrazovanje je oslobađajuće i izazovno; ono nam nudi izbor, jer nam otvara oči i um. Obuka ide spolja ka unutra, obrazovanje iznutra napolje... Obuka će biti od pomoći samo onda kada organizacija nauči kako na pametan način da iskotisti sposobnosti individue, spajajući talenat sa zdravom kulturom, sistemima i procesima, u službi dobro smišljenih poslovnih ciljeva.


(50. pitanje)

Glavne faze obuke

Na sonovu studije oko 100 organizacija od strane East Hampshire Business Support Group, Fill i Mullins uočili su da obuka prolazi kroz četiri glavne faze: obuka o izlazu, obuka o zadacima, obuka o poslovanju i obuka o strategiji.

• Obuka o izlazu je generalno oblast za male organizacije koje, po zapošljavanju pojedinca ili investiranju u novu mašinu, teže da dobiju izlaz što je brže moguće. Troškovi se moraju apsorbovati i transakcije izvršiti u najkraćem mogućem vremenu, kako bi početni investicioni rizik bio opravdan. Ovaj tip obuke vezan je za pojedinca, izvodi se unutar kuće i samo onda kada nova oprema, proizvodi ili osobe dospeju u organizaciju.
• Obuka o zadacima podrazumeva slanje izabranih pojedinaca na kratke kurseve. Zdravstveni propisi, propisi zaštite, kursevi upoznavanja sa proizvođačem i finansiranje stručnih večernjih škola spadaju u ovu vrstu obuke. Za razliku od introvertne faze obuke o izlazu, obuka o zadacima osnovnu orijentaciju vidi u zajedničkim potrebama pojedinca i organizacije – prvi znaci eksternog shvatanja.
• Obuka o poslovanju se pojavljuje kada je organizacija već dovoljno porasla i učvrstila se. Obuka se sada shvata pozitivno, sa jednom osobom prvi put formalno zaduženom za obuku. Proces obuke se kao stavka pojavljuje u planovima i budžetima. Programi obuke postaju sredstvo putem kog se može kontrolisati poslovanje pojedinaca i organizacije. Organizacija koja teži da poboljša svoj kvalitet može to efikasno sprovesti samo usvajanjem funkcija obuke. Tokom ove faze sistemi procene takođe postaju razvijeniji. Ovi sistemi ne koriste se samo za procenu efikasnosti obuke, već i za predviđanje budućih potreba za obukom.
• Obuka o strategiji se dostiže kada organizacija prepozna i praktikuje obuku kao sastavni deo menadžmenta ljudskih resursa, priprema organizacione strategije i planira obuku prema ličnim i organizacionim potrebama. Obuka o strategiji je integralni deo filozofije i kulture organizacije.


Obuka za menadžment za promene

Ove četiri glavne faze obuke moraju biti u usaglašene sa sadržajem okoline u kojoj organizacija posluje. Različite faze obuke prikladne su u različita vremena. Širok spektar faktora utiče na organizacije i čini potrebu za promenom neizbežnom. Obuka o promeni je vitalna za dugotrajno preživljavanje organizacije. Sve veći akcenat se stavlja kako na potrebu za kontinualnom obukom da bi se izašlo u susret promenama, tako i na obuku kao vitalnu investiciju za budućnost.
Industrijsko Društvo (Industrial Society) ističe da mnogi sindikati prepoznaju važnost obuke u relevantnim zanatima za održanje sigurnosti poslova njihovih članova. Kao rezultat ovoga, oni teže da uvrste obuku u osnovni dogovor, uspostavljanjem udruženih sporazuma o obuci. Za neke poslodavce ovo bi mogao biti važan put ka razvijanju udruženog prilaza menadžmentu promene. Jedan od predloga Društva je da bi organizacije trebalo da obezbede doprinos linijskih menadžera obuci. Organizacije bi trebalo da obezbede da menadžeri na svim nivoima razumeju da njihove pozicije uključuju odgovornost o obuci i razvoju njihovog osoblja i da će to biti jedan od faktora u godišnjoj oceni njihovog rada.


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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Wed Dec 15, 2010 11:01 pm

Stop repeat offenders. Don't re-elect them!

Why do psychics have to ask you for your name?

I intend to live forever - so far, so good.

Who is General Failure and why is he reading my hard disk?

What happens if you get scared half to death twice?

I used to have an open mind but my brains kept falling out.

Black holes are where God divided by zero.

All those who believe in psychokinesis raise my hand.

Taxation WITH representation isn't so hot, either!




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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  paganizonda on Wed Dec 15, 2010 11:30 pm

Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao is on a three-day visit to New Delhi for a series of meetings with India's top leaders. The two rising Asian powers insist the world is big enough for both of them to prosper - but negotiations over sensitive security issues still lie before them.

Wen arrived here vowing to sign $16 billion worth of economic deals with India. His scheduled visit is aimed at strengthening understanding between the two neighbors, both of which are rapidly assuming superpower status on the world stage.

In a speech to business leaders, Wen rejected the idea that India and China have conflicting interests. He said the fast economic growth of India and China has been an important engine for the world economy, but said he does not agree with the view that the two countries are rivals. China and India are partners for cooperation, he said, and there is enough space in the world for the development of both countries.


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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Wed Dec 15, 2010 11:42 pm

A preacher, who shall we say was "humor impaired," attended a conference to help encourage and better equip pastors for their ministry.

Among the speakers were many well known and dynamic speakers. One such boldly approached the pulpit and, gathering the entire crowd's attention, said, "The best years of my life were spent in the arms of a woman that wasn't my wife!" The crowd was shocked! He followed up by saying, "And that woman was my mother!" - The crowd burst into laughter and delivered the rest of his talk, which went over quite well.

The next week, the pastor decided he'd give this humor thing a try, and use that joke in his sermon. As he surely approached the pulpit that sunny Sunday, he tried to rehearse the joke in his head. It suddenly seemed a bit foggy to him.

Getting to the microphone he said loudly, "The greatest years of my life were spent in the arms of another woman that was not my wife!" The congregation inhaled half the air in the room. After standing there for almost 10 seconds in the stunned silence, trying to recall the second half of the joke, the pastor finally blurted out, "...and I can't remember who she was!"



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Thu Dec 16, 2010 12:32 am

One of the best examples of how ridiculous government paperwork can be is illustrated by a recent case in Louisiana. A company president was trying to buy some land in Louisiana for a plant expansion, and he wanted to finance this new facility with a government loan.

His lawyer filled out all the necessary forms, including the abstract---tracing the title to the land back to 1803. The government reviewed his application and abstract and sent the following reply:



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Thu Dec 16, 2010 12:39 am

Introductory Chemistry was taught at Duke University for many years by professor Bonk. One year, two guys took the class and did pretty well on all the quizzes and mid-terms--so much so that going into the final, they each had a solid A. These two friends were so confident going into the final that the weekend before finals week, despite the Chemistry final being on Monday, they decided to go to the Uuniversity of Virginina to party with some friends.




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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Thu Dec 16, 2010 12:42 am

They did this and had a great time. However, with their hangovers and tiredness, they overslept all day Sunday and didn't make it back to Duke until early Monday morning. Rather than taking the final then, they found professor Bonk after the final and explained to him how they missed the final. They told him they went up to the University of Virgina for the weekend and had planned to come back in time to study, but they had a flat tire on the way back and didn't have a spare. They couldn't fix it for a long time and were late getting back to campus.



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Thu Dec 16, 2010 12:55 am

You know how it is when you're reading a book and falling asleep, you're reading, reading . . . And all of a sudden you notice your eyes are closed? I'm like that all the time.

Last night, I walked up to this beautiful woman in a bar and asked her, "Do you live around here often?" She said, "You're wearing two different colored socks." I said, "Yes, but to me they're the same because I go by thickness." Then she asked, "How do you feel?" and I said, "Well, you know when you're sitting on a chair and you lean back so you're just on two legs then you lean too far and you almost fall over but at the last second you catch yourself? I feel like that all the time."

Right now I'm having amnesia and deja vu at the same time. I think I've forgotten this before.

Lots of comedians have people they try to mimic. I mimic my shadow.

I got a new shadow. I had to get rid of the other one . . . It wasn't doing what I was doing.

I was once walking through the forest alone. A tree fell right in front of me--and I didn't hear it.

I wrote a song, but I can't read music so I don't know what it is. Every once in a while I'll be listening to the radio and I say, "I think I might have written that."

He asked me if I knew what time it was. I said, "Yes, but not right now."

I put tape on the mirrors in my house so I don't accidentally walk through into another dimension.




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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  paganizonda on Thu Dec 16, 2010 12:58 am

Meanwhile, the head of the British armed forces says there has been progress in Afghanistan. Speaking to a gathering of security experts in London on Wednesday, General David Richards said coalition forces are operating from a position of strength, and the insurgency has begun to deteriorate.
The review of the U.S. war strategy comes as patience with the Afghan war is wearing thin after more than nine years and the untimely death of Ambassador Richard Holbrooke, President Obama's Special Representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan, a veteran diplomat, who died Monday following a tear in his aorta at the age of 69.

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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Thu Dec 16, 2010 1:04 am

Two neighbors had been fighting each other for nigh on four decades. Bob buys a Great Dane and teaches it to use the bathroom in Bill's yard. For one whole year Bill ignores the dog.

So Bob then buys a cow and teaches it to use the bathroom in Bill's yard. After about a year and a half of Bob's cow crapping in Bill's yard; being ignored all the while, a semi pulls up in front of Bill's house.

Bob runs over and demands to know what's in the 18-wheeler.

'My new pet elephant,' Bill replies solemly.



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  BigBoy1292 on Fri Dec 17, 2010 8:04 pm

A man went to his dentist because he feels something wrong in his mouth. The dentist examines him and says, "that new upper plate I put in for you six months ago is eroding. What have you been eating?"

The man replies, "all I can think of is that about four months ago my wife made some asparagus and put some stuff on it that was delicious...Hollandaise sauce. I loved it so much I now put it on everything --- meat, toast, fish, vegtables, everything."

"Well," says the dentist, "that's probably the problem. Hollandaise sauce is made with lots of lemon juice, which is highly corrosive. It's eaten away your upper plate. I'll make you a new plate, and this time use chrome." "Why chrome?" asks the patient.

To which the dentist replies, "It's simple. Everyone knows that there's no plate like chrome for the Hollandaise!"



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 17, 2010 8:12 pm

Briefing reporters, State Department Spokesman P.J. Crowley said U.S. officials "certainly trust" that South Korea "will be very cautious" in what it does. But he said it is understandable that the Seoul government wants to assure that its forces are properly trained, given recent North Korean "provocations."

"South Korea has the right to self defense, it has a right to exercise its military as it sees fit," said P.J. Crowley. "Northing that South Korea is planning is in anyway threatening to North Korea, and there's no justification for North Korea taking any action what-so-ever, should South Korea decide to proceed with this scheduled live exercise."



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 17, 2010 8:28 pm

U.S. officials fear lax security at Indian laboratories could result in a biological terror attack, with fatal diseases like anthrax spreading worldwide.

Diplomatic cables from the U.S. Embassy in New Delhi reveal that a senior Indian diplomat told U.S. officials that terror groups have an increasing interest in biowarfare and could be seeking out experts in the field.



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Re: Obuka i razvoj

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 17, 2010 9:00 pm

The two-day European Union summit ended Friday with very few surprises. As expected, leaders from the 27-member bloc decided to establish a permanent funding mechanism to help ailing European economies as of 2013. That means slightly changing the EU's governing Lisbon Treaty. But they left the details - including the amount of the new fund - to be hashed out in the coming months.

At a press conference Friday, Jose Manuel Barroso, president of the European Commission - the EU's executive arm - outlined other areas of agreement, including tougher rules for the banking sector and for bringing state debts under control.


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