STRATESKI MENADZMENT

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STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  Admin on Mon Jan 11, 2010 4:00 pm

Strategijski menadžment je koncept koji uključuje kako strategijsko planiranje tako i strategijsku akciju u situaciji kada se sredina brzo menja i rastu njeni otpori. Strategijski menadžment je način da se smanje, ako ne i eliminišu potpuno, otpori promenama. On omogućava da se preduzeće osposobi da izbegava pojavu krizne situacije. Akcenat je na blagovremenoj analizi strategijske pozicije preduzeća u privredi, utvrđivanju kriterijuma za izbor među alternativnim strategijama i preduzimanju akcije koja se na osnovu feedback sistema (povratne sprege) kontroliše i usmerava.
Razne definicije strategijskog menadžmenta:
- upravljanje odnosom preduzeća sa njegovom sredinom
- set odluka i akcija koje vode stvaranju efektivne strategije ili strategija koje doprinose ostvarenju ciljeva preduzeća
- povezivanje strategijskog razmišljanja sa operativnim odlukama na svim nivoima u strukturi preduzeća
Kod svih definicija akcentira se da je strategijski menadžment način razmišljanja koji integriše strategijsko i taktičko stanovište i odluke da se usmeri potencijal preduzeća ka područjima poslovanja na kojima može preduzeće da ostvari adekvatnu konkurentsku prednost.
Strategijski menadžment je kontinuiran i interaktivan proces kojims e preduzeće kao celina održava u skladu sa svojom sredinom. To je proces koji se nikada ne prekida u preduzeću. Različite aktivnosti SM mogu biti više ili manje zastupljene u određenim periodima vremena. Interaktivnost procesa znači da postoji redosled u obavljanju pojedinih faza SM. Naime, proces sesastoji od serije etapa koje se ponavljaju na cikličan način.








1. FUNKCIJE MENADŽMENTA I MENADŽERSKOG PLANIRANJA

Аktivnosti kojima se menadžment bavi nazivaju se funkcije menadžmenta. One sadržavaju sve faze kroz koje poduzeće i samo poslovanje prolazi. Od samog početka koji započinje planiranjem, pa sve do konačnog kontoliranja, odnosno usporedbe planiranog sa postignutim.
Proces poslovanja, odnosno funkcije menadžmenta sastoje se od:
1. planiranje- postavljanje ciljeva
2. organiziranje
3. kadroviranje – upravljanje ljudskim resursima
4. vođenje – motivisanje i komuniciranje
5. kontrola - mjerenje i ocjenjivanje postignutih rezultata

Pojam strategija pozajmljen je iz vojne nauke i veštine, koreni reči su u grčkom jeziku: strategos znači general, stratos armija, agein znači voditi. Koreni taktike: taktikos znači spremnost za postrojavanje, takto naređivanja. Tako u vojnom značenju strategija odlučuje šta treba da se uradi, a taktika govori o pojedinačnim ciljevima koji treba da se ostvare. Strategija je primena odabranih načina ostvarenja ciljeva u okolnostima koje se menjaju. Taktika treba da obezbedi uspeh u datim konkretnim okolnostima.

Razne definicije strategije: ostvarenje bazičnih dugoročnih ciljeva i zadataka preduzeća i prihvatanje pravaca akcije i alociranja izvora neophodnih da se sprovedu ti ciljevi; način kreiranja toka odluka i akcija; plansko svesno usmeravana akcija preduzeća; smišljeno suočavanje sa konkurentima, racionalno suočavanje preduzeća sa sredinom; način na koji menadžment vidi sebe u svetu oko sebe.
Strategija kao osnovni način ostvarivanja ciljeva odnosi se na poslovne odluke kojima se reguliše odnos preduzeća sa sredinom: određuje područje poslovne aktivnosti, alociraju izvori na segmente poslovne aktivnosti, definiše i koristi prednost i kompetentnosti – zadovoljenje potreba građana kao potrošača, privrede i društva u proizvodima i uslčugama uz ostvarenje dobiti. Taktika se odnosi na odluke koje se donose tokom realizacije odluka strategijskog karaktera. Njima se vrši razrada i prilagođavanje strategisjkih odluka koje se donose pre otpočinjanja poslovne aktivnosti.

Strategija kao odluka o osnovnim načinima ostvarivanja ciljeva poslovanja orjentisana je na izbor poslovnog područja i alokaciju izvora preduzeća sa ciljem da se kreira i održava konkurentska prednost u sredini. Strategija se odnosi samo na one odluke o izboru poslovnog područja i alokacije izvora koje imaju bitan i trajan uticaj na rentabilitet preduzeća.

Određivanje poslovnog područja je ključno pitanje u procesu formulisanja strategije. Može se slobodno reći da ta odluka opredeljuje sudbinu preduzeća u celini. Naći poslovna područja koja obezbeđuju korišćenje potencijala preduzeća nije jednostavno. Poslovno područje je određeno, pre svega, kategorijom kupaca čije potrebe preduzeće namerava da zadovolji svojom poslovnom aktivnošću. U privredi se poslovno područje definiše polazeći od tražnje ili ponude.
- polazeći od tražnje poslovno područje je određeno tržištem čije se potrebe zadovoljavaju; bitno je znati primarnu kategoriju kupaca
- polazeći od ponude poslovno područje je određeno proizvodima i uslugama u proizvodnom programu preduzeća (ako su proizvodi višefunkcionalni oni zadovoljavaju veći broj potreba kupaca)
Da bi se definisala poslovna područja bitno je govoriti uvek o odnosu proizvod-tržište. Preduzeće mora nastojati da uskladi svoj potencijal (proizvod) sa zahtevima kupaca (tržište). Pri izboru poslovnog područja menadžment bi trebalo da obrati pažnju na sredinu grane (u turbulentnoj uže, a u stabilnim granama šire ga definisati), treba da budu pažljivi u definisanju i povremeno treba da revidiraju stavove o poslovnom području.

Alokacija izvora – s obzirom da su izvori preduzeća ograničeni i zbog nemogućnosti da se jednom alocirani ponovo koriste bitno je da se simultano vrše izbor poslovnog područja i alokacija izvora. Neophodno je odabrati strategijski pravac alokacije: kom poslovnom području dati prioritet u zadovoljavanju njegovih identifikovanih potreba (osnovni kriterijum za ustanovljavanje prioriteta je konkurentska prednost).

Konkurentska prednost je određena potencijalom preduzeća odnosno njegovom kompetentnošću da bolje od drugih učesnika u privrednom poslovanju zadovoljava određeno poslovno područje. Konkurentska prednost je dobrim delom rezultat sposobnosti preduzeća da na odgovarajući način koncentriše izvore i obezbedi njihovu kombinaciju i način upotrebe.
Osnovne karakteristike strategije su postojanje strategijske situacije i strategijskog ponašanja. Strategijska situacija je konkurentski međuodnos između različitih kupaca i prodavaca određene linije proizvoda na određenom tržištu tj. poslovnom području. Konkurentska situacija postoji kad god dva ili više preduzeća žele da ostvare isti cilj u situaciji kada se pretpostavlja da sva preduzeća neće biti u stanju da ostvare cilj.
Strategijska pozicija je određena mestom preduzeća na glavnim tržišnim segmentima i relativnim obimom poslovne aktivnosti na svakom od tih segmenata, proizvodnim programom, učešćem na tržištu... Preduzeće mora imati strategiju odnosa sa svim učesnicima u privrednom poslovanju. Može odabrati strategiju prilagođavanja sredini, može biti inicijator raznih oblika saradnje sa ostalim učesnicima, može odabrati strategiju prihvatanja konfliktnih situacija i konfrontiranja sa drugim učesnicima.
U literaturi je prihvaćen stav da strategija treba da omogućava preduzeću da zauzme i održava određenu poziciju na tržištu. Za racionalnost strategije od posebnog je značaja da menadžment preduzeća identifkuje pokretačke snage promena u sredini i kritične faktore uspeha u određenoj grani.
- Pokretačke snage tekuću strukturu grane pomeraju ka novoj strukturi odnosno njiohovoj konkurentskoj situaciji što ima uticaj na strategijske izbore. Pokretači nisu samo faktori koji deluju u sredini i dobrim delom su van kontrole preduzeća, već i vrednosti i shvatanja menadžmenta preduzeća. Postoji veći broj tih pokretačkih snaga koje prouzrokuju evolutivne promene u grani: promene u dugoročnoj stopi rasta grane, promene u strukturi kupaca, inovacija proizvoda ili procesa, marketing inovacija, ulazak ili izlazak značajnih preduzeća iz grane, uticaj promena u ekonomskoj politici i državnoj regulativi...
- Kritični faktori uspeha se najbolje mogu definisati u smislu suštine kompetentnosti preduzeća za obavljanje poslovne aktivnosti u određenim delatnostima: izvor i sposobnosti (faktori proizvodnje) koji su neophodni da bi preduzeće u jednoj grani moglo da obezbedi kontinuelan uspeh u poslovanju. Kritični faktori uspeha variraju po delatnostima i svako preduzeće mora za sebe da ih definiše. Analiza sposobnosti i slabosti može da pomogne u njihovom definisanju. Kritični faktori uspeha moraju da se unapređuju da se obezbedi uspešnost strategije. Sredina određuje koji su kritični faktori uspeha. U nacionalnim granama su jedni, a u globalnim drugi faktori uspeha. Mora da se ustanovi karakter grane i da se prouče kritični faktori.

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:23 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:24 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:25 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:25 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:26 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:26 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:26 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:26 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:27 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:27 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:27 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:28 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:28 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:28 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:28 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

Post  paganizonda on Fri Dec 24, 2010 2:29 am

TIGER WOODS: Didn't hit the ball quite as sharp as I did yesterday, but I felt like ironically enough I felt better with the putter. I hit a lot of pure putts, made a bunch of five- or six-footers all day today, and the greens were quick, and I just kept hitting the ball in the wrong spots, kept giving myself these big breaking putts or above the hole. The majority of the day I was putting pretty defensively.

Q: You've talked about putting together four good rounds in a row. If you look at it now you're halfway there. Are you feeling pretty confident the way you're playing?

paganizonda

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Re: STRATESKI MENADZMENT

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